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Computer Science | Informatik-Spektrum

Computer Science

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Organ der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. und mit ihr assoziierter Organisationen

Hauptherausgeber: Arndt Bode Chefredakteur: Peter Pagel

ISSN: 0170-6012 (gedruckte Version) ISSN: 1432-122X (elektronische Version)

Zeitschriften Nr. 287

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Hauptaufgabe dieser Zeitschrift ist diePublikation aktueller, praktisch verwertbarer Informationen über technische und wissenschaftliche Fortschritte aus allen Bereichen der Informatik und ihrer Anwendungenin Formvon Übersichtsartikeln und einführenden Darstellungen sowie Berichten über Projekte und Fallstudien, die zukünftige Trends aufzeigen.

Es sollen damit jene Leser angesprochen werden, die sich in neue Sachgebiete der Informatik einarbeiten, sich weiterbilden, sich einen Überblick verschaffen wollen. Damit kommen als Zielgruppe nicht nur ausgebildete Informatikspezialisten in Betracht, sondern auch Praktiker, die neben ihrer Tagesarbeit die wissenschaftliche Entwicklung der Informatik verfolgen, und Studierende an Fachhochschulen oder Universitäten,die sich Einblick in Aufgaben und Probleme der Praxis verschaffen möchten.

Durch Auswahl der Autoren und der Themen sowie durch Einflussnahme auf Inhalt und Darstellung - die Beiträge werden von mehreren Herausgebern referiert - soll erreicht werden, dass möglichst jeder Beitrag dem größten Teil der Leser verständlich und lesenswert erscheint. So soll diese Zeitschrift das gesamte Spektrum der Informatik umfassen, aber nicht in getrennte Sparten mit verschiedenen Leserkreisen zerfallen. Da die Informatik eine sich auch weiterhin stark entwickelnde anwendungsorientierte Wissenschaft ist, die ihre eigenen wissenschaftlichen und theoretischen Grundlagen zu einem großen Teil selbst entwickeln muss, will die Zeitschrift sich an den Problemen der Praxis orientieren, ohne die Aufgabe zu vergessen, ein solides wissenschaftliches Fundament zu erarbeiten. Zur Anwendungsorientierung gehört auch die Beschäftigung mit den Problemen der Auswirkung der Informatikanwendungen auf den Einzelnen, den Staat und die Gesellschaft sowie mit Fragen der Informatik-Berufe einschließlich der Ausbildungsrichtlinien und der Bedarfsschätzungen.

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EuropeanSouthernObservatory

eso1820 — Science Release

27 June 2018

`Oumuamua, the first interstellar object discovered in the Solar System, is moving away from the Sun faster than expected. This anomalous behaviour was detected by a worldwide astronomical collaboration including ESO’s Very Large Telescope in Chile. The new results suggest that `Oumuamua is most likely an interstellar comet and not an asteroid. The discovery appears in the journal Nature.

`Oumuamua — the first interstellar object discovered within our Solar System — has been the subject of intense scrutiny since its discovery in October 2017 [1] . Now, by combining data from the ESO’s Very Large Telescope and other observatories, an international team of astronomers has found that the object is moving faster than predicted. The measured gain in speed is tiny and `Oumuamua is still slowing down because of the pull of the Sun — just not as fast as predicted by celestial mechanics.

The team, led by Marco Micheli (European Space Agency) explored several scenarios to explain the faster-than-predicted speed of this peculiar interstellar visitor. The most likely explanation is that `Oumuamua is venting material from its surface due to solar heating — a behaviour known as outgassing [2] . The thrust from this ejected material is thought to provide the small but steady push that is sending `Oumuamua hurtling out of the Solar System faster than expected — as of 1 June 2018 it is traveling at roughly 114 000 kilometres per hour.

Such outgassing is a behaviour typical for comets and contradicts the previous classification of `Oumuamua as an interstellar asteroid. “We think this is a tiny, weird comet,” commented Marco Micheli. “ We can see in the data that its boost is getting smaller the farther away it travels from the Sun, which is typical for comets.”

Usually, when comets are warmed by the Sun they eject dust and gas, which form a cloud of material — called a — around them, as well as the characteristic . However, the research team could not detect any visual evidence of outgassing.

We did not see any dust, coma, or tail, which is unusual, ” explained co-author Karen Meech of the University of Hawaii, USA. Meech led the discovery team’s characterisation of `Oumuamua in 2017. “ We think that ‘Oumuamua may vent unusually large, coarse dust grains.

The team speculated that perhaps the small dust grains adorning the surface of most comets eroded during `Oumuamua’s journey through interstellar space, with only larger dust grains remaining. Though a cloud of these larger particles would not be bright enough to be detected, it would explain the unexpected change to ‘Oumuamua’s speed.

Not only is `Oumuamua’s hypothesised outgassing an unsolved mystery, but also its interstellar origin. The team originally performed the new observations on `Oumuamua to exactly determine its path which would have probably allowed it to trace the object back to its parent star system. The new results means it will be more challenging to obtain this information.

Author affiliations

Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232, Switzerland

Dates

Received 29 September 2017 Accepted 4 January 2018 Published 23 January 2018

Citation

S. Redford et al 2018 JINST 13 C01027

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https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/C01027

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The JUNGFRAU detector is a charge integrating hybrid silicon pixel detector developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut for photon science applications, in particular for the upcoming free electron laser SwissFEL. With a high dynamic range, analogue readout, low noise and three automatically switching gains, JUNGFRAU promises excellent performance not only at XFELs but also at synchrotrons in areas such as protein crystallography, ptychography, pump-probe and time resolved measurements. To achieve its full potential, the detector must be calibrated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This contribution presents the current status of the JUNGFRAU calibration project, in which a variety of input charge sources are used to parametrise the energy response of the detector across four orders of magnitude of dynamic range. Building on preliminary studies, the first full calibration procedure of a JUNGFRAU 0.5 Mpixel module is described. The calibration is validated using alternative sources of charge deposition, including laboratory experiments and measurements at ESRF and LCLS. The findings from these measurements are presented. Calibrated modules have already been used in proof-of-principle style protein crystallography experiments at the SLS. A first look at selected results is shown. Aspects such as the conversion of charge to number of photons, treatment of multi-size pixels and the origin of non-linear response are also discussed.

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, 12 March 1991, Pages 217-227
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Ferrocenethiol and ferrocene-1,-1′-dithiol, Fe(CH)(CHSH) and Fe(CHSH) respectively, can be added to both norbornadiene and norbornene in a radical-induced process. The reaction of ferrocenethiol with norbornadiene (1 : 10) in toluene at 70°C gives a mixture of 1 : 1 addition products containing 3-ferrocenylthio-nortricyclane (I) as the main component (ca. 80%)l side-products are the substituted norbornene derivatives 5-- and 5--ferrocenylthio-norborn-2-ene (II and III) as well as 7--ferrocenylthio-norborn-2-ene (IV). Only traces of addition compounds containing ferrocenethiol and norbornadiene in a 2 : 1 ratio were obtained and identified by mass spectrometry.

The radical-initiated addition of ferrocenethiol to norbornene leads, even with an excess of norbornene, to the preferential formation of differocenyldisulfide in addition to 2-- and 2--ferrocenylthio-norbornane (V and VI). In an analogous manner, di[1′-(2--norbornylthio)ferrocenyl]disulfide (VII) is obtained from the reaction of ferrocene-1,1′-dithiol with excess norbornene. The new ferrocene-sulphur compounds I–VII were characterized by their H and C NMR spectra.

Ferrocenthiol und Ferrocen-1,1′-dithiol, Fe(CH)(CHSH)bzw. Fe(CHSH), lassen sich radikalisch an Norbornadien und Norbornen addieren. Die Umsetzung von Ferrocenthiol mit Norbornadien (1 : 10) in Toluol bei 70°C ergibt ein Gemisch von 1 : 1-Additionsprodukten, in dem 3-Ferrocenylthionortricyclan (I) dominiert (ca. 80%); Nebenprodukte sind die substituierten Norbornen-Derivate 5-- und 5--Ferrocenylthio-norborn-2-en (II und III) sowie 7--Ferrocenylthio-norborn-2-en (IV). 2 : 1-Additionsverbindungen von Ferrocenthiol und Norbornadien wurden nur in Spuren erhalten und massenspektrometrisch identifiziert.

Die radikalisch initiierte Anlagerung von Ferrocenthiol an Norbornen fürht auch bei Norbornen-Überschuß, bevorzugt zur Bildung von Diferrocenyldisulfid neben 2-- und 2--Ferrocenylthio-norbornan (V und VI). Bei der Reaktion von Ferrocen-1,1′-dithiol mit überschüssigem Norbornen wird entsprechend Di[1′-(2--norbornylthio)ferrocenyl]disulfid (VII) erhalten. Die neuen Ferrocen-Schwefel-Verbindungen I–VII wurden anhand ihrer H und C NMR-Spektren charakterisiert.

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